当前在线人数15398
首页 - 博客首页 - 读书听歌看电影 - 图片阅读 [博客首页] [首页]
古代的名厨
作者:wh
发表时间:2015-03-12
更新时间:2015-03-19
浏览:1141次
评论:1篇
地址:130.
::: 栏目 :::
动画/少儿片
杂七杂八
网友,网友
宫崎骏/吉卜力
新闻八卦
儿童天地
人啊人
到处晃悠——中国
影视舞台
听音乐
翻书
到处晃悠——国外

今天读到一则新闻(附后),说耶鲁中世纪历史教授Paul Freedman开了门食物史的课,广受学生欢迎。Freedman说食物不仅深入日常生活,还影响政治甚至社会大变迁。比如中国人喝茶不加糖,但茶传入欧洲后,欧洲人开始在茶、咖啡、巧克力等饮料里加糖。为了保证糖的供应,欧洲人在世界各地、尤其是巴西和加勒比地区开辟种植园,买大量非洲人搬运到种植园当奴隶工,由此引发悲惨的大规模黑人贩奴。又如,中世纪的食谱极为推崇各种香料,于是引发欧洲人探寻香料的原产地印度,引出了达伽马和哥伦布的航海之旅。

Freedman说欧洲中世纪的食物和现在的很不同。中世纪的富人餐桌豪华奢侈,主打风格是excess(古文老师曾说明末的风格是“淫”,不光指金瓶梅式的性淫,更是社会各层面的过度,即excess);不过他们未必比我们更浪费,因为中世纪没有法律禁止赠送熟食,富人吃剩的食物尽可供给佣人、佣人家属及穷人。农民吃得比富人更健康,吃更多蔬菜和谷物。从17、18世纪后法国带头改革,放弃奢华,返璞归真。直到现在欧美烹调主流仍延续简朴风格,突出主要食材的原味,而不像中世纪那样花哨地加个十七八种香料。

Freeman又说从古罗马、巴格达到古中国、奥特曼,古今中外都有名垂青史的大厨及传世的烹饪书籍。我好奇中国古代有哪些名厨,网上一搜,一个答案是庖丁、易牙,另一个答案是十大名厨,其中也包括易牙。庖丁是战国时期梁国御厨,其解牛动作如商洛舞蹈,声音节奏如唐尧音乐,得到文惠君和庄子的赞赏。庄子没说他怎么做牛肉,推想也该是依天理、循原味,合乎西方现代的自然简朴标准吧。其他十位名厨也给有兴趣的同学看一看(大部分内容来自百度):

1. 伊尹。他爸爸就是个奴隶厨师,他子承父业,青出于蓝,离开洛阳故乡的有莘小国,背着锅碗瓢盆去见商国的汤王,以烹调、五味为引子,边做菜边分析天下大势与为政之道,劝汤灭夏。商汤乃知其经天纬地之才,免其奴隶身份,命为右相,成为最高执政大臣。伊尹不仅辅佐商汤夺取天下,并是后来三任商王的重臣。他有烹调之圣、中华厨祖之美誉,“伊尹汤液”千年传颂,广东及其他一些地方赴宴开席第一道菜要先上汤菜,可能就是沿于此。——搜读了一下《伊尹汤液经》,是针对各种病症的中药方;张仲景的《伤寒论》里的许多药方源出此书;唐后失传,民国考订重建。这和广式例汤貌似相差较远?

2. 易牙。春秋时期齐桓公的御厨。精于煎、熬、燔、炙,又是调味专家。孟子说:“至于味,天下期于易牙。”一次桓公说没吃过婴儿的肉,易牙就把自己三岁的儿子杀了,炖成肉羹汤给齐桓公吃。晕死……管仲看不上他这种巴结和残忍:“人之情非不爱其子也,其子之忍,又将何爱于君!”齐桓公起先听从管仲,撤了易牙的职,永远不准入朝;但管仲死后又重新重用易牙。果然桓公重病时易牙和竖刁作乱,填塞宫门,筑起高墙,封锁王宫,把桓公活活饿死,尸体在床上67日,蛆虫都爬到了卧室外面,没人敢去收葬。易牙、竖刁立桓公庶子无诡为王,太子诏逃往宋国。宋襄公联合齐国卿大夫反攻,诛杀竖刁,易牙逃亡。“易牙”在古文中也有“厨师”的意思。——这几位古代大厨都是醉翁之意不在酒、在乎政治呀。

3. 太和公。春秋末年吴国名厨,长期生活在太湖之滨,精通以水产为原料的菜肴,尤以炙鱼闻名天下,为吴王僚赞赏。吴公子光谋夺王位,派专诸到太湖向太和公学炙鱼手艺,学成后吴公子设宴请僚,令专诸在献炙鱼时刺杀吴王僚。僚死,专诸也被吴王卫士杀死。太和公的超凡手艺竟被用于宫廷叛乱、政治斗争。

4. 膳祖。唐朝女名厨,丞相段文昌的家厨。段文昌对饮食很讲究,曾自编《食经》50章。女厨膳祖原本手艺精湛,又得段的调教,如虎添翼。她对原料修治,滋味调配,火候文武,无不得心应手,具有独特本领。后来段文昌的儿子段成式编《酉阳杂俎》,书中名食均出自家中这位女大厨之手。

5. 梵正。五代时的尼姑名厨,以创制“辋川小祥”风景拼盘而驰名天下,将菜肴与造型艺术融为一体。辋川小样用脍、肉脯、肉酱、瓜果、蔬菜等原料雕刻、拼制而成,拼摆时以王维所画辋川别墅20个风景图为蓝本,制成别墅风景,使菜上有风景,盘中溢诗情。宋代陶谷在《清异录•馔羞门》中备加夸赞:“比丘尼梵正,庖制精巧,用鲊脍脯,醢酱瓜,黄赤色汁成景物,若坐及二十人,则人装一景,合成辋川图小样。”

6. 刘娘子。南宋高宗宫中女厨,历史上第一个宫廷女厨师。据《春渚纪闻》载:宋高宗宫中有位女厨师刘娘子,高宗继位之前她就在赵构的藩府做菜了,宋高宗想吃什么菜,她就在案板上切配好,烹制成熟后献食,高宗十分满意。按照宫廷规定,主管皇帝御食的负责官员叫尚食,只能由男人担任,是个五品官。刘娘子身为女流,却被破格任用(又一说是“不能担当此官”,不知道她到底当没当上),宫里的人多称她为“尚食刘娘子”。

7. 宋五嫂。南宋著名民间女厨师。她从河南开封逃难至杭州,在钱塘门开一爿小食店,因丈夫姓宋排行老五,人们就称她为宋五嫂。当时从北方逃难来杭州的中原人很多,有官有民,大家思乡难归,很想尝点乡味以解乡思。宋五嫂家卖的鱼羹,正是传统汴京风味,颇能招徕异乡之客。高宗赵构闻名,特派太监来,叫宋五嫂做了鱼羹送进宫,连皇帝都爱吃。又一说是高宗乘龙舟游西湖,尝其鱼羹,赞美不已。从此宋嫂鱼羹身价百倍,名声大振。宋嫂被奉为脍鱼之“师祖”。方恒泰《西湖》诗云:“小泊湖边五柳居,当筵网得鲜鱼也,味酸最爱银刀脍,河鲤洛舫总不和。”他赞的五柳居醋鱼,有人说即是当年的宋嫂鱼羹。
http://farm8.staticflickr.com/7593/16867117792_44af2370ea_o.jpg

http://www.yibanglv.com/upOther/Food/2012-02-22/2012022216060180925.jpg

8. 董小宛。明末清初秦淮名妓,善制菜蔬糕点,尤以桃膏、瓜膏、腌菜等闻名于江南。小宛腌制的咸菜能使黄者如蜡,绿者如翠。各色野菜一经她手都有一种异香绝味。她做的火肉有松柏之味,风鱼有麂鹿之味,醉蛤如桃花,松虾如龙须,油鲳如鲟鱼,烘兔酥鸡如饼饵,一匕一脔,妙不可言。
小宛经常研究食谱,看到哪里有奇异的风味就去访求它的制作方法。现在人们常吃的虎皮肉,即走油肉,就是她的发明,因此,它还有一个鲜为人知的名字叫“董肉”,和“东坡肉”相映成趣。
小宛还善于制作糖点,她在秦淮时曾用褪壳芝麻、精细白糖、纯净饴糖加上等面粉炒制的炒面、松子、桃仁和麻油作为原料制成酥糖,切成长五分、宽三分、厚一分的方块。这种酥糖外黄内酥,甜而不腻,入口易化,食后留香,人们称为“董糖”。《崇川咫闻录》记载:“‘董糖’,冒巢民之妾董小宛所造。未归巢民时,以此糖自秦淮寄巢民,古至今号‘秦邮董糖’。”现在的扬州名点灌香董糖(也叫寸金董糖)、卷酥董糖(也叫芝麻酥糖)和如皋水明楼牌董糖都为她所创制,是名扬海内的土特产。
http://images1.wenming.cn/web_jsnt/ntwh/201308/W020130828549022423753.jpg

http://img03.taobaocdn.com/bao/uploaded/i3/T1DL_fXelkXXc83SE9_104535.jpg

http://www.spzs.com/uploadfiles/s_634871274879062500.png

9. 萧美人。清朝著名女点心师,以善制馒头、糕点、饺子等点心而闻名。袁枚十分推崇她,《随园食单》中盛赞其点心“小巧可爱,洁白如雪”。

10. 王小余。清乾隆年间名厨,袁枚家的掌勺大厨师,烹饪手艺高超,并有丰富的理论经验。他烧的菜肴香味散发“闻其臭香,十步以外无不颐逐逐然”。袁枚的《随园食单》有许多方面得益于王小余的经验总结、真知灼见。王小余死后,袁枚专门写了一篇《厨者王小余传》纪念这位优秀厨师。王小余是中国唯一一位死后有传的古代名厨。

数了一下,十大名厨中女厨比男厨多两位!



提示: 本博文来自于 LeisureTime 版

[上一篇] [下一篇] [发表评论] [写信问候] [收藏] [举报] 
 
共有1条评论
1   [wh 于 2015-03-12 14:28:24 提到] [FROM: 130.]
另附食物史课的新闻:

http://news.yale.edu/2015/03/04/columbus-celebrity-chefs-how-food-helped-shape-history?utm_source=YNemail&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=yn-03-10-15

From Columbus to celebrity chefs: How food helped shape history

By Amy Athey McDonald
March 4, 2015

http://news.yale.edu/sites/default/files/imce/Birds-fruit720.jpg

Food: It feeds the soul, fuels the body, affects the environment, inspires
artists, influences politics, and impacts just about every part of our lives
. It has been a subject of fascination and entertainment for centuries,
reflected in the beauty of a Dutch still life, the pageantry of a royal
banquet, or even the latest episode of “Top Chef.”

While the subject of food may be fascinating to gourmands and gluttons alike
, it turns out that the study of the history of food — and the numerous
social, cultural, and political forces that shape our palette — is a
relatively new field.

Paul Freedman, the Chester D. Tripp Professor of History and chair of the
Program in the History of Science and Medicine, specializes in medieval
history and teaches the only undergraduate course at Yale dedicated to the
history of cuisine. He began teaching “The History of Food” in 2009, and
his class draws students from disciplines ranging from environmental science
to engineering to history.

YaleNews spoke with Freedman about celebrity chefs, medieval banquets, what
the history of food can tell us about our culture, and his favorite
cookbooks.

Why should we study the history of food?

Food can tell us a lot about a society in the past and the present,
including what people lived on and how they managed to create a food supply,
often in difficult circumstances. A number of major historical events have
been dictated by changing tastes in food, like the “career” of sugar.

Tea in China is not drunk with sugar. It was the Europeans who decided to
put sugar in beverages like tea, chocolate, and coffee. In order to increase
the global supply of sugar, they established plantations, particularly in
the Caribbean and Brazil, and they brought Africans over to be enslaved
workers. So one of the most cataclysmic movements of people in the history
of the world is the result of what might be seen as a frivolous or minor
fashion.

Similarly, it was the quest for spices in the Middle Ages that dictated
attempts to find their source in India, the voyages of Vasco da Gama and
Columbus.

How did you become interested in the subject?

I became interested in the history of food through work on a book about
spices in the Middle Ages. I wanted to understand why these expensive
products were so popular.

At that time I had a fellowship at the New York Public Library, which had an
exhibition of menus in the collection. They have something like 40,000
menus, mostly but by no means all from New York City, and I was fascinated
by them, their design, and how much the food offered seems to have changed
over time. I became interested in food in its modern guise.

In 2005, I was contacted by an editor in London for the publisher Thames and
Hudson, who asked me if I’d edit a book on the history of food. My first
response, which is typically academic, was “Actually, that’s not my field.
” But I was intrigued. The project encouraged me to think outside the
Middle Ages, and I agreed to do it. The book, “Food: The History of Taste”
(2007) spans prehistory to present times.

You specialize in medieval history. Can you tell us a little bit about food
in the Middle Ages?

Food in the Middle Ages was closer to Middle Eastern food today than to
modern European cuisine. It featured a lot of spices, was rather perfumed
with ingredients such as rose-water, and sweet, with sugar in main courses.
Dried fruits and pine nuts were also main course ingredients. The most
popular meats included game, and pork. Meat had prestige. The medieval
Catholic Church had over 100 fast days per year, so there was also a lot of
fish. Most people ate herring or cod or something that could be dried or
salted for preservation.

The nature of banqueting was to create excess. The aristocracy had 50- or
100-course meals with a lot of color and pageantry. One course might be a
chicken with a banner riding on the back of a glazed orange suckling pig.
The point of being wealthy was to show off what no one else had, but in that
era there was less food waste than now. Somebody would eat it all, like the
kitchen staff, other servants, their families, and eventually the poor.
They didn't have our laws against giving away cooked food.

Peasants probably had a more balanced diet than the nobles, eating more
vegetables and grains. It’s wrong to think peasants were on the brink of
starvation all of the time. There was also a very prosperous commercial
class that imitated the upper class in terms of food.
How is our food different today?

The food of the Middle Ages was very different from modern European food,
which is based on French innovations of the 17th and 18th centuries.

http://news.yale.edu/sites/default/files/imce/YUAG_StillLife.jpg

Sauces in the main courses are now meant to intensify flavors, rather than
cover them. A typical French sauce is a distillate and flavored with things
like shallots, herbs, or truffles, rather than cinnamon or nutmeg. Such
spices, along with sugar, are exiled to the realm of desserts.

All of the traditional French cooking is a reaction against the Middle Ages.
The French chefs of the 17th and 18th centuries ridiculed earlier food as
childish and inedible, based on spectacle and not on flavor.
There is a great emphasis in French culinary text on simplicity, not
literally plainness, but in terms of making the flavor of the primary
product come through. This remains the case today. Nouvelle cuisine in the
1970s was the same kind of reaction against over-complication or poor
quality disguised by multiple ingredients.

Are there any dishes from the Middle Ages that you would like to see make a
comeback?

I don't understand why game hasn't come back. The United States is teeming
with deer. There are certain species of wild animals — of which there are a
lot and quite edible — that people ate in the past and for some reason don
’t now.

Also, various kinds of ducks and pheasants. There are things that people
loved in 19th-century America that are no longer common, like terrapin, or
canvasback ducks, which were prestige dishes in the 1800s.
You’ve lectured on the origins of celebrity chefs. How long have they been
around, and why do we celebrate them?

Like any art or craft, there are some people who do it better than others.
They achieve fame because nobody else seems to be able to make certain
dishes so well. In ancient Rome we know of one surviving cookbook attributed
to Marcus Gavius Apicius. There were also great chefs who worked for the
Islamic caliphs in Baghdad, emperors in China, and officials in the Ottoman
Empire.

One of the first celebrity chefs in the Western world that we know anything
about is Guillaume Tirle, known as Taillevent, a cook in the court of France
in the 14th century. He was ennobled, and his name was put on a collection
of recipes, “Le Viandier.” To this day, one of the greatest restaurants in
Paris is called Taillevent, so his name is a household word.

There's a difference, however, between celebrity chefs today, like Dan
Barber or René Redzepi, and those from even a few decades ago. Nobody asked
Taillevent, Antonin Carême, Auguste Escoffier, or Alexis Soyer their
opinions on the environment or social issues. The idea that chefs are
supposed to take leadership in these areas is a new phenomenon.

When did the first restaurants open?

The first restaurants arose in Paris before the French Revolution, around
1760 and 1770. The word comes from “restoration,” and they were places to
get nourishment for hypercondriacal or “delicate” people. As these places
evolved, they served other expensive and fashionable health foods for the
middle and upper classes.

Part of what defined a restaurant was that you could get food at any time,
unlike at an inn or table d’hôte. It wasn’t done family style. You
could sit down and dine with the people you came with, and choose what to
order.

Restaurants in the United States start around 1830. Delmonico’s is
considered the first real restaurant in New York City. It lasted from 1835
to 1923. The original closed with prohibition, as many restaurants did.

What must naturally follow restaurants are food critics. Was that also a
French invention?

Alexander Balthazzar Grimod de la Reynière was the first food critic — he
was a strange character — and wrote the multi-volume “L’Almanach des
Gourmandes” in the early 19th century.

Restaurant reviews in the United States came much later, and in a way, not
until Craig Claiborne, who was food editor and restaurant critic for The New
York Times for many years. Up until then, reviews were really puff pieces
that were essentially advertising.

Is food a more complicated subject today than it was even 50 years ago?

It's always been complicated. There has always been a difference between
what the upper class and the lower class eats. For a very long time America
has been unusual because of the popularity of immigrants’ food. But we’ve
tended to emphasize variety over quality. We’ll offer poor-quality burgers,
but “have it your way.” It’s hard to do quality in an industrial economy.

So it’s always been complicated, but people now are more inclined to think
it's a subject worth studying. The reason it has not been studied very much
from this point of view is that it's both ubiquitous and invisible. You have
to make food all the time, and it therefore it seems a necessity. But it’s
still considered by some people a dubious academic subject because it's
both everywhere and nowhere.

Do you like to cook?

Yes, I do. I wouldn’t say that I'm a very skilled cook, but I do most of
the cooking in the family.

What are some of your favorite cookbooks?

Like many people, there are three or four cookbooks that I use all the time.
One is by Viana La place and Evan Kleiman, “Cucina Fresca,” which
features Italian food that can be served at room temperature. I still like
the Pierre Franey books that came out when I was first married, called “The
60-Minute Gourmet” and “More Sixty-Minute Gourmet.” I love the fact
that in the 1980s, an hour appeared to be fast. Today nobody would boast
that it only took them 60 minutes to make dinner. I like the “Plenty” and
“Jerusalem” cookbooks by Yotam Ottolenghi. And I like to make Chinese food
and comfort food.

What’s next for you?

My real interest in terms of my own food-related scholarship is American
restaurants. I’m working on a book called “Ten Restaurants that Changed
America,” which is due out in 2016 or early 2017.

http://news.yale.edu/sites/default/files/imce/Freedman.jpg
(Paul Freedman)
 
用户名: 密码:
发表评论
评论:
[返回顶部] [刷新]  [给wh写信]  [读书听歌看电影首页] [博客首页] [BBS 未名空间站]
 
Site Map - Contact Us - Terms and Conditions - Privacy Policy

版权所有BBS 未名空间站(mitbbs.com) since 1996